Dissertação de mestrado apresentada ao Programa de Pós-graduação Stricto Sensu em Psicologia do Centro Universitário de Brasília UniCEUB.

Autor(a): VIVIANE PINHEIRO LOURENÇO
Orientadora
: Prof.ª Dr.ª Amalia Raquel Pérez- Nebra.

ABSTRACT

A considerable number of teachers have presented changes in physical and mental health. Some are absent (absenteeism), others are present, however, they perform their activities in a non-productive way and do not perform well (presenteism) and there are teachers who experience burnout. It is understood that organizational variables measure the process, such as the use of appropriate coping strategies or an ethical leadership that performs its function. The main goal of this study was to identify how coping strategies measure burnout syndrome and ethical leadership to moderate absenteeism and presenteism in teachers. Two questionnaires were used as research instruments: one demographic partner and the other with questions about absenteeism, besides the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Ethical Leadership Scale (ELS) and Coping Scale Occupational (ECO). The research was carried out in the months of May and June of 2016. The participants answered in a single moment and individually, after signing the ICF. It was identified the prevalence of female teachers, married and enrolled. The mean age was 41.07 years (SD = 9.29), professional experience 15.08 years (SD = 8.83) and working time at school was also 15.08 years (SD = 6.13). In this study, 58.7% reported missing at least once in the last 6 months. The number of days reported had an average of 17.4 days (SD = 40.20) and days of delay and earlier departures of 3.67 days (SD = 8.40). The teachers justified the absences due to physical illnesses, mental illnesses, treatments and family accompaniment. On the SPS6 scale, teachers presented a prevalence of avoided distraction averaging 2.90 (SD = 1.21) and in the completed work the mean was 3.13 (SD = 1.05). In the MBI scale the mean for Emotional Exhaustion was 2.92 (SD = 0.86), for Professional Achievement 3.50 (SD = 0.71) and for depersonalization 2.08 (SD = 0.66). Regarding the ECO scale, the control was the one with the highest score 3.68 (SD = 0.61), followed by an average of 2.80 (SD = 0.73) and avoided 2.71 (SD = 0.65). For ethical leadership, the mean was 3.86 (SD = 0.80). Direct and significant correlations were found between absences at work and presence of sick people (r = 0.44). Regarding the predictive variables at the individual level, emotional exhaustion was the only one that was able to predict both absenteeism (R² = 0.16, F = 23.32) and distraction avoided (R² = 0.29, F = 45.56). Regarding the organizational variables, ethical leadership and coping strategy, it was verified that both do not predict both absenteeism and presenteism, refuting the hypothesis of mediation of the coping strategy. It was concluded that teachers ‘absences and loss of productivity are related to burnout, affecting teachers’ professional and personal daily lives, as well as causing diverse economic and educational losses. The prevalence of the control factor as the most used strategy suggests that teachers make use of actions and proactive cognitive reassessments at work. The results of this study contribute to the advancement of the multidisciplinary knowledge of the variables and provide subsidies to the area for the planning of intervention and preventive measures to burnout and withdrawal.
KEYWORDS:
Absenteeism, Presentism, Burnout Syndrome, Ethical Leadership, Coping Strategies.

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